A Reconsideration Marcia L. It is remarkable that so little attention has been directed to the central anomaly of the Art of War. He, and they, were mercenary captains in the employ of the Aragonese kings of Naples, the papacy, Ferdinand of Aragon, the French, and, occasionally, the Florentines.
His father, Bernardo Machiavelli, was a lawyer, although not a very prosperous one, with much of his income derived from family property rather than his law practice. However, he retained his membership in the lawyers' guild, which was influential in Florentine politics.
Very little is know about Machiavelli's early life, but it appears that he received a typical education for a boy of the middle class, learning Latin and reading the classical Roman and Greek authors, particularly the histories.
Although Florence was supposed to be a republic, ruled by its leading citizens rather than by lords or princes, during Machiavelli's youth, Florence was effectively controlled by the powerful Medici family, with Lorenzo de Medici, called "the Magnificent," at its head.
The Florence of Machiavelli's time was a rich, vibrant city—a center of the arts—of which Lorenzo was a great patron, and a hub of intellectual activity.
Florence had an excellent university, where Machiavelli may have listened to lectures, and it is possible he had some contact with Lorenzo's son, Giuliano. Lorenzo's truly magnificent public displays and artistic ventures drained the Medici fortune, and his successor, Piero, proved unpopular.
The Medici fell from power inreplaced by Girolamo Savonarola, a Dominican friar who led a charismatic religious government. No official records of Machiavelli's life appear untilimmediately after the fall of Savonarola's government, when he would have been The Florentine republic had been reinstated, and Machiavelli was appointed as secretary of the Second Chancery, a position in which he coordinated relations with Florence's territorial possessions.
How he acquired this position is not clear. Participation in the government was expected of all of Florence's leading citizens, but Machiavelli's intelligence and energy must have attracted particular attention among Florence's politicians.
Within a month, he also became secretary to the Council of Ten of War, Florence's foreign policy body, in which he functioned as an envoy, traveling extensively around Italy and Europe to negotiate with potential allies, gather information, and do whatever the Ten needed done.
Though not officially an ambassador, a position reserved for members of aristocratic families, he was nonetheless a professional diplomat. Inhe married Marietta Corsini, with whom he had seven children. Little is known about their relationship beyond the few domestic details that appear in Machiavelli's many letters.
Machiavelli appears to have kept more than one mistress during his extensive travels, a practice that would not have been unusual in his time. Machiavelli would spend 14 years as the "Florentine secretary. These visits and his experience in foreign policy would later form the basis of many of the principles he expresses in The Prince, and the great personages that he met form the examples from which he draws his lessons.
He also became a friend of Piero Soderini, who in was named gonfaloniere head of the Florentine government for life. Dismayed by the performance of mercenaries hired by the Florentine government, he persuaded Soderini to back a plan to create a native Florentine militia, very much against the wishes of the Florentine aristocracy.
Machiavelli personally supervised the project, overseeing everything from the selection of uniforms to training and maneuvers. He was vindicated in when the Florentine militia were finally able to take the neighboring city of Pisa after conflicts that had dragged on for 15 years.
This marked the high point of Machiavelli's career. This put Florence into conflict with the pope and his Spanish allies, who sent armies to Florence to remove the Soderini government. Soderini was a man of responsibility and integrity, but Machiavelli would later have harsh words for Soderini's complete inability to control his opponents in Florence or to cut his losses with the French.
InMachiavelli's Florentine militia was cut down by more experienced Spanish troops at the nearby town of Prato, and Soderini was forced to resign in the aftermath. The Medici family returned to Florence, and the people soon demanded that they be put back in power.
As a supporter of the Soderini government, Machiavelli was removed from his office by the new regime, fined, and forbidden to travel outside Florentine territory. A few months later, two young malcontents were arrested and found with a list of supposed conspirators against the Medici.AP European History: The Western Heritage Chapter 10 most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St.
Peter's Basilica. politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. The decline of the Condottieri began in , with the first, great foreign invasion in a century: the French king, Charles VIII's royal army matched the divided Italian city-states and their smaller condottieri armies.
The most renowned condottieri fought for foreign powers: Gian Giacomo Trivulzio abandoned Milan for France, while Andrea Doria was Admiral of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Princes must lay good foundations, and those foundations include good laws and good armies. There cannot be good laws without good armies, and where there are good laws, there must be good arms, so Machiavelli declares he will only discuss arms, not laws.
Arms to defend the state are the prince's own, mercenaries, auxiliaries, or a mix of the three. The Punic Wars in Perspective - The pool of citizens and allies available for military service to ignore the economic strength underlying Rome's successful war-making.
Roman armies needed to be paid, equipped, clothed and fed, tasks all made more difficult as they campaigned further and further away.
struggle between Rome and . ARMIES, ROMAN. The Roman armies were the most highly organized and disciplined fighting forces of their time. These powerful legions enabled Rome to conquer neighboring and distant peoples, building an empire that spanned much of Europe and reached into Asia and northern Africa.
When the conquered lands became part of the Roman .
The Art of War (Machiavelli, Vauban, and Frederick) Civil War Implications of Tactics By In this compilation I have chosen to take a look at the American war in the 's from a European perspective of the very early days of war. Machiavelli: The Roman armies were a carefully selected militia whose soldiers came from rural areas.