This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue http: When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. APA American Psychological Association is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, second printing.
For more information, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or a style guide to writing research papers. The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand, and Writing Center tutors can help you to use them.
Always ask your mentor which style to use before you begin to write your paper. The APA style is used in the social sciences and is governed by two basic ideas.
The first is that a scientific paper attempts to show something that has already been proven true, so it calls for the past or present perfect tense when you cite the work of others.
Second, the year of publication is important, so you need to feature it immediately after any named source in the text. Smyth found that children often studied while watching television. Williams and Maier have defined a new theory of cognition.
Use the present tense for generalizations and personal comments. Use the past or style of writing apa perfect tenses only to introduce the work of cited sources. Evidence of the rise of the heroin use exists for every age group, even children.
Burroughs and Bruce reported on five incidents of heroin overdose in the under 10 age group. Basic APA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the reference page.
Leave margins of at least one-inch at the top, bottom, right, and left of every page. Use a reference page for reference to parenthetical citations. Within the text of your paper, underline titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals, films, television programs, and recordings; place in quotation marks titles of articles, essays in anthologies, book chapters, and lectures.
Number pages in the upper right hand corner. Include a running head. Plagiarism is generally grounds for failure of a course and can lead to dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a reference page.
Enclose direct quotations in quotation marks or otherwise indent them from the body of your text. If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, be sure to use your own language and style of writing — don't simply rearrange the words.
Use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source, then list on a reference page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. For more detailed information on plagiarism and how to avoid it, see the handout available at the GVC Writing Center.
After the first appearance, cite the author's name either within the text of your writing or within the parenthetical citation immediately following the cited passage.
Note that commas separate items within parentheses. Following are some examples of in-text citation methods in the APA style. In his study of the effects of alcohol on the ability to drive, Smith showed that the reaction times of participating drivers were adversely affected by as little as a twelve ounce can of beer.
If you don't use the author's name in the text, place it within the parenthetical citation with the date. A recent study of the effects of alcohol on the ability to drive showed that as little as twelve ounces of beer adversely affected the reaction time of participating drivers Smith, Provide a page number when you use an exact quotation.
Use the singular "p. In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smithp. If you do so, remember to place the date immediately after the author's name. In his study on the effects of alcohol on drivers, Smith stated that "participants who drank twelve ounces of beer with a 3.
Indent a direct quotation of 40 or more words five spaces from the left margin. If the quotation includes more than one paragraph, indent the first line of succeeding paragraphs five more spaces ten spaces total. Don't use quotation marks, and be sure to double space the quotation as well as your own writing.
In her study of adult patterns of television watching, Roberts reported the following behaviors: Response behaviors exhibited by participants who watched television without any other persons present in the viewing room included imitating the facial expressions and hand movements of television characters as well as talking to individual characters.
Affective behaviors included exhibitions of anger such as shouting and throwing magazines at the television.
Such behaviors were less evident behaviors in participants who watched television in groups of three. Instead, participants in group watching were more likely to interject critical or humorous comments regarding the content of particular television programs.She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, , p.
), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. Example of proper paraphrasing APA APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, , p. ). APA style: These are the official guidelines put forth by the American Psychological Association, now in its sixth edition.
This is the preference of the social sciences, so if you are studying sociology, psychology, medicine, or social work you are going to know APA style. The Reference Page The Reference list provides information for readers who may want to access the sources you cite in your paper.
Citing Online with APA. The APA Style Guide, designed by the American Psychological Association, is commonly used by social and behavioral scientists. It is also sometimes used in scientific publication, as its rules attempt to reduce biases in writing.
APA (American Psychological Association) is a style of writing that social and behavioral scientists use to present scholarly written materials in their professional fields. It was developed to establish a standard writing style that would make communication of scientific ideas easier and more consistent.
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.